How much Pesticide is used in Australia? Here’s the numbers from the APVMA for 2016-17 Financial Year

Final Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines Product Sales 2016–17 Financial Year

This notice provides the collated final product sales information provided to the APVMA for the 2016–17 financial year.

AGRICULTURAL (PESTICIDES) PRODUCT SALES FOR THE 2016–17 FINANCIAL YEAR

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT TYPES NO OF PRODUCTS TOTAL $
HERBICIDE 3363 1,683,419,473.00
INSECTICIDE 1482 484,435,989.00
FUNGICIDE 967 343,395,018.00
HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDE 616 196,131,923.00
ADJUVANTS/SURFACTANTS 425 103,966,099.00
POOL PRODUCTS/ALGICIDE 651 69,706,060.00
SEED TREATMENTS 163 65,844,793.00
WOOD PRESERVATIVE 113 54,428,811.00
GROWTH PROMOTERS/REGULATORS 257 46,085,620.00
MIXED FUNCTION PESTICIDE 148 39,256,257.00
MITICIDE 131 36,071,952.00
VERTEBRATE POISON 229 33,537,849.00
ANTIFOULING—BOAT 49 17,405,749.00
MOLLUSCICIDE 54 16,005,613.00
DAIRY CLEANSER 127 12,974,988.00
DISINFECTANT/SANITISER 101 11,858,626.00
MISC (E.G: SEED SAFENERS, MARKERS ETC) 72 4,826,601.00
NEMATICIDE 15 2,036,905.00
REPELLENT—DOGS/BIRDS ETC 16 1,232,912.00
GRAND TOTAL 8979 3,222,621,238.00

 

VETERINARY MEDICINES PRODUCT SALES FOR THE 2016–17 FINANCIAL YEAR
VETERINARY PRODUCT TYPES PRODUCT PURPOSE  NO OF PRODUCTS TOTAL $
IMMUNOTHERAPY INJECTABLE VACCINES 184 169,542,452.00
PARASITICIDES SMALL ANIMALS—EXTERNAL 221 109,587,375.00
PARASITICIDES SMALL ANIMALS—INTERNAL 257 88,232,165.00
PARASITICIDES LARGE ANIMALS—EXTERNAL 209 83,814,199.00
PARASITICIDES LARGE ANIMALS—INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL 100 65,404,186.00
PARASITICIDES LARGE ANIMALS—INTERNAL 293 62,025,622.00
PARASITICIDES SMALL ANIMALS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL 40 54,605,862.00
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS 231 36,675,871.00
MISC MISC 95 34,804,502.00
ANTIBIOTIC & RELATED ANTIBIOTIC—ORAL 204 31,052,489.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM GROWTH PROMOTANTS 62 30,055,682.00
ANTIBIOTIC & RELATED ANTIBIOTIC—PARENTERAL 74 27,916,540.00
IMMUNOTHERAPY NASAL, ORAL, OPTHALMIC VACCINES 35 27,204,416.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM VITAMIN, MINERAL, AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS 192 25,095,530.00
DERMATOLOGICAL PREPS ANTISEPTICS (DERMATOLOGICAL AND GENERAL) 133 23,718,771.00
ANAESTHETICS/ANALGESICS ANAESTHETICS—LOCAL AND GENERAL 50 13,939,131.00
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM SEX HORMONES 55 12,902,293.00
ANTIBIOTIC & RELATED ANTIBIOTIC—INTRAMAMMARY 28 9,769,046.00
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM TROPIC HORMONES (PITUITARY) AND INSULIN PREPARATIONS 40 8,817,876.00
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CARDIAC REACTANTS, CLOTTING AGENTS 59 8,575,941.00
EAR,NOSE,THROAT PREPS AURAL 27 7,967,236.00
ANAESTHETICS/ANALGESICS ANALGESICS 22 7,839,738.00
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM HYPNOTICS, TRANQUILIZERS, EMETICS, ANTIEMETICS 42 6,290,934.00
ALIMENTARY SYSTEM LAXATIVES, PURGATIVES & LUBICANTS, ANTISPASMODICS 15 5,962,171.00
DERMATOLOGICAL PREPS NONSTEROIDAL ANTIPRURITICS, KERATOLYICS 33 5,749,629.00
IMMUNOTHERAPY IMMUNOMODIFYING AGENTS 11 4,836,355.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM ANTIBIOTIC AND ANTI-INFECTIVE SUPPLEMENTS 46 4,554,783.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM ELECTROLYTES 51 4,404,784.00
DERMATOLOGICAL PREPS ANTIBIOTICS, ANTIFUNGALS, CORTICOSTEROID COMBINATIONS 29 3,684,846.00
ANTIBIOTIC & RELATED SULFONAMIDES 38 3,597,791.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM DIETARY/THERAPEUTIC PET FOODS 24 3,574,108.00
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM CORTICOSTEROIDS AND ADRENAL COMPOUNDS 33 3,442,987.00
ALIMENTARY SYSTEM ANTI BLOAT 17 3,349,424.00
OPHTHALMIC PREPARATIONS OPHTHALMIC PREPARATIONS 19 3,260,283.00
ANTIBIOTIC & RELATED OTHER ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS 46 2,769,586.00
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM COUNTER-IRRITANTS, RUBEFACIENTS, POULTICES 13 2,558,042.00
PARASITICIDES BIRDS—INTERNAL 30 2,455,443.00
GENITOURINARY SYSTEM DIURETICS, ACIDIFIERS, ALKANISERS 24 2,346,994.00
PARASITICIDES LARGE AND SMALL ANIMALS—EXTERNAL 17 2,189,590.00
IMMUNOTHERAPY ANTISERA, ANTIVENIM 9 2,117,791.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM IRON AND HAEMOPOIETIC AGENTS 21 1,637,138.00
ALIMENTARY SYSTEM ANTIDIARRHOEALS AND SCOUR TREATMENTS 17 1,550,235.00
ANTIDOTES ANTIDOTES 15 1,442,442.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM DIGESTIVE ENZYME SUPPLEMENTS 12 1,238,791.00
GENITOURINARY SYSTEM UTERINE OR VAGINAL ACTING AGENTS 7 1,182,702.00
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM EXPECTORANTS, MUCOLYTICS, DECONGESTANTS, BRONCHODILATORS, RESP STIMULANTS 18 1,153,078.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM PROBIOTIC AND PREBIOTIC 8 746,922.00
PARASITICIDES BIRDS—EXTERNAL 9 355,467.00
NUTRITION & METABOLISM TONICS, STIMULANTS 12 324,215.00
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ANABOLIC STEROIDS 21 129,776.00
GRAND TOTAL   3248 1,016,453,230.00

APVMA Contact For further information please contact:

Finance Officer

Corporate Services

Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority

PO Box 6182

KINGSTON ACT 2604

 

Phone:   +61 2 6210 4808

Fax:        +61 2 6210 4721

Email:    finance@apvma.gov.au

Chemical Poisoning – a Reminder

label2

That’s an example of a label for a Paraquat product, an S7, Dangerous poison; can’t be much clearer. Yet we see incidents like this reported in the ABC late in 2017:

“The near-fatal poisoning of a NSW Central Coast man with severe autism who drank a cocktail of highly toxic herbicides left in an unmarked drink bottle has sparked fresh calls for a nationwide ban on Paraquat.” (Mary-Louise Vince ABC 11/12/2017).

The same report went on to remind us: “In 2015, a Queensland farmer died after the deadly herbicide accidentally sprayed into his mouth when he was filling a pressure back-pack pump spray”.

There appears to be no follow-up report on the findings of the 2017 incident yet and the NSW EPA advised the ABC that the investigation could take up to 3 years.

But the message is clear, and one that Smith & Georg has been espousing in its Chemical Accreditation training for over 21 years:

  • Read Chemical Labels
  • Comply with the requirements of Chemical Labels
  • Take heed of warnings on Chemical Labels
  • Respect the general public, your fellow workers and yourself.
  • NEVER, EVER, decant any chemical into any container that is, or can be confused with, a drink or food container.
  • Safe Work Australia require that workplaces must:

“Ensure hazardous chemicals are correctly labelled in accordance with the model WHS Regulations, including where the chemical is stored in pipework, or transferred or decanted from the chemical’s original container at the workplace.”

Have your workers been trained? Do you need Full Accredited or WHS training in the handling of AgVet Chemicals?

We can help – contact us on 1800 991 985

 

Our New Website Front Page – making it easier to find courses and information

We look at the ‘hits’ our website gets and see that many people were going to our look-up page to see what training is required in in their State. The page was buried a bit, but now on the front page; it’s easy to find!

Visit our front page and try clicking on the map here:

www.smithandgeorg.com.au

Also we’ve made it more simple to find out all the information you need about each course:

new-front-pageWe expect that these changes will make it easier to look up what is required by each State and will make it easier for our customers to find the training that they require.

When your feet are hotter than your head – why is that?

When your feet are hotter than your head – why is that?

Temperature inversion: is a reversal of the normal behaviour of temperature in the troposphere (the region of the atmosphere nearest the Earth’s surface), in which a layer of cool air at the surface is overlain by a layer of warmer air. (Under normal conditions air temperature usually decreases with height.) – Encyclopædia Britannicainversion-1

Temperature Inversions play an important role in determining cloud forms, precipitation, and visibility. An inversion acts as a cap on the upward movement of air from the layers below. As a result, convection produced by the heating of air from below is limited to levels below the inversion. Diffusion of dust, smoke, and other air pollutants is likewise limited. In regions where a pronounced low-level inversion is present, convective clouds cannot grow high enough to produce showers and, at the same time, visibility may be greatly reduced below the inversion, even in the absence of clouds, by the accumulation of dust and smoke particles. Because air near the base of an inversion tends to be cool, fog is frequently present there.

Temperature Inversions also affect daytime variations in air temperature. The principal heating of air during the day is produced by its contact with a land surface

All types of inversions can have an impact on spray drift, ground inversions, which are commonly localised, are of more interest

that has been heated by the Sun’s radiation. Heat from the ground is communicated to the air by conduction and convection. Since an inversion will usually control the upper level to which heat is carried by convection, only a shallow layer of air will be heated if the inversion is low and large, and the rise in temperature will be great.

There are a number of kinds of Temperature Inversions: ground, turbulence, subsidence, frontal and vegetative:

  • A ground inversion develops when air is cooled by contact with a colder surface until it becomes cooler than the overlying atmosphere; this occurs most often on clear nights, when the ground cools off rapidly by radiation. If the temperature of surface air drops below its dew point, fog may result. Topography greatly affects the magnitude of ground inversions. If the land is rolling or hilly, the cold air formed on the higher land surfaces tends to drain into the hollows, producing a larger and thicker inversion above low ground and little or none above higher elevations.
  • A turbulence inversion often forms when quiescent air overlies turbulent air. Within the turbulent layer, vertical mixing carries heat downward and cools the upper part of the layer. The unmixed air above is not cooled and eventually is warmer than the air below; an inversion then exists.
  • A subsidence inversion develops when a widespread layer of air descends. The layer is compressed and heated by the resulting increase in atmospheric pressure, and as a result the lapse rate of temperature is reduced. If the air mass sinks low enough, the air at higher altitudes becomes warmer than at lower altitudes, producing a temperature inversion. Subsidence inversions are common over the northern continents in winter and over the subtropical oceans; these regions generally have subsiding air because they are located under large high-pressure centres.
  • A frontal inversion occurs when a cold air mass undercuts a warm air mass and lifts it aloft; the front between the two air masses then has warm air above and cold air below. This kind of inversion has considerable slope, whereas other inversions are nearly horizontal. In addition, humidity may be high, and clouds may be present immediately above it.
  • Vegetative inversions are the effect of canopy and the temperature above/underneath them. Vegetative inversions can occur in the early morning with warmer air moving over the canopy layer or later, on a hot day when transpiration from dense canopy cover can cause a cool layer over the canopy, acting the same as an inversion layer.

The key for pesticide users is to understand the potential impact of temperature inversions on our spraying activities.

Q.  What is it about Temperature Inversions that can cause problems for spraying?

A.  Spray drift can be concentrated due to the lack of wind movement/turbulence at ground level and directional movement due to slope can move spray drift long distances in unpredictable directions. The localised inversion pattern may bear little relationship to broader weather conditions. Sometimes fine sprays may not be able to penetrate the inversion layer and may be transported away from the target.

Q.  Are there clues to help identify temperature inversions?

A.  A surface temperature inversion is likely to be present if:

  • wind speed is constantly less than 11km/h in the evening and overnight;
  • cool, off-slope breezes develop during the evening or overnight;
  • distant sounds become clearer and easier to hear;
  • and aromas become more distinct during the evening than during the day.

Also there are clues that a surface temperature inversion is unlikely:

  • Applicators should always expect that a surface temperature inversion is most
    inversion-3
    Cumulus Clouds

    likely to have formed at sunset and will persist for some time after sunrise. However, a surface temperature inversion is unlikely if one or more of the following has occurred:

  • continuous overcast weather,
  • with low and heavy cloud; continuous rain;
  • wind speed remains above 11km/h for the whole time between sunset and sunrise;
  • and after a clear night, cumulus clouds begin to form.

 

Further information:

Bill Gordon –  www.ispray.com.au

Graeme Tepper, ‘Weather essentials for pesticide application’, GRDC www.grdc.com.au/GRDC-BookletWeatherEssentials

Or have a listen to this: https://soundcloud.com/whetterj/canolab_inversions

 

Rotating Pesticides – Weed-killers, Drenches, Insecticides etc.

Rotating Pesticides – Weed-killers, Drenches, Insecticides etc.

It’s not about rotating ‘names’ – it’s all about rotating modes of action and maybe not actually rotating at all.

And is it effective for all pesticides?

Over the next few Smith & Georg AgChemNews editions we’ll consider some current wisdom gleaned from industry and industry support experts.

In the last edition of the Smith & Georg AgChemNews we looked at sheep drenches and we also looked at Rappers; in this edition we’ll have a look at herbicide rotation and weed resistance prevention and Keith Richards and Jimi Hendrix get a mention!

Here’s an extract from CropLife’s online ‘Herbicide Resistance Management Strategies


SPECIFIC GUIDELINE FOR GROUP D HERBICIDES

Moderate resistance risk

Resistance to Group D herbicides is known for an increasing number of populations of annual ryegrass and dense flowered fumitory.  Resistance has generally occurred after 10 -15 years of use of Group D herbicides.   

Where possible, avoid the use of Group D herbicides on dense ryegrass populations.  Consider using alternative methods of weed control to reduce weed numbers before applying herbicides.

To assist in delaying the onset of Group D resistance, rotate and or tank mix with herbicides from other modes of action. 

Use Group D herbicides at robust rates eg the maximum label rates to ensure high levels of weed control particularly when targeting annual ryegrass.

All the above recommendations should be read in conjunction with the Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies


Clearly when the body representing herbicide manufacturers is concerned about resistance then chemical users should be too.

The above extract talks about ‘Group D’, what’s this all about?

chart-moa
Table from GRDC

Herbicides are all classified into ‘Modes of Action’ (MOA) Groups, the table below shows the modes, risk of resistance to the actives in those modes and typical number of years of application for resistance to develop:

Using the same MOA herbicide, season after season will promote resistance – how is that so?

The best way to demonstrate this is with a chart:

This shows that year by year, as resistance to a specific herbicide (MOA) grows, resistancecontinued use of that herbicide, with no other use of other actions, will increase the population of the resistant (in red) weeds.

A general guideline for the rotation of chemical groups should consider:

  • consider IPM/IWM first – with due consideration an approach that minimises the use of chemicals may deliver results that protect the future use of chemicals, by avoiding encouraging resistance.
  • avoid continued use of the same herbicide or herbicides having the same site of action (MOA) in the same field, unless it is integrated with other weed control practices (IPM).
  • limit the number of applications of a single herbicide or herbicides having the same site of action (MOA) in a single growing season
  • where possible, use mixtures or sequential treatments of herbicides having a different site of action (MOA) but which are active on the same target weeds
  • use non-selective herbicides to control early flushes of weeds (prior to crop emergence) and/or weed escapes

 

 

IWM & IPM – Integrated (Weed or Pest) Management is the terminology used to describe an approach to dealing with pest problems that encompasses much more ipm-modelthan reaching for the nearest drum of pesticide and encourages utilising all the ‘tools in the tool bag’, and to continually review the process – participation in a Smith & Georg AgVet Chemical Accreditation Course will provide you with a foundation on which to develop your own IPM plan.

It’s probably worth re-visiting Herbicide (MOA) Groups – where to find this information?

Here I’ll use the information provided by the APVMA (remember them? They are moving to Armidale.) I’m not going to try to make this a label reading course, just simply point out where, on the label, you can find the Herbicide (MOA) Group and where to go to find out more on reading labels.model-pesticide-label

Find Section 5 on the above APVMA Model Pesticide Chemical Label – this section tells you what MOA group this pesticide is in. Don’t stop there; also look at Section 12. Here will be described any resistance warnings, with appropriate instructions to be followed to assist with the prevention of resistance.

Finding out more:

Smith & Georg provide comprehensive label reading tuition in their AgVet Chemical Accreditation course.

The APVMAUNDERSTANDING PESTICIDE CHEMICAL LABELS’ booklet also has useful information.

Here’s the actual Section 5 and Section 12 information from a product:

stompstomp2

The Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI) wants us to treat herbicides ‘so they are like Keith Richards and not Jimi Hendrix’. Properly (?) looked after they can ‘live hard & die old’ not ‘live hard & die young’! Find out more here!keith-richards

Storing your AgVet Chemicals – Best Practice

Storing your AgVet Chemicals – Best Practice

Best Practice if you have AgVet Chemicals stored on farm/property.

In this article we’ll look at the best practice for farm owners, property, facility & amenity managers, hobby farms and others, who keep a supply of AgVet chemicals.

Dangerous Goods regulations vary around Australia so, to keep this simple, we’ll discuss the best practice, rather than regulatory requirements.

Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for users of Hazardous Chemicals and the placarding of Chemical Storage. This is a complicated subject and an excerpt from our courses here will explain this further and provide a couple of decision examples: have a look here

Best Practice requirements for STORAGE will include:

  • Appropriate construction
  • an impervious floor;
  • containment (of a spill) of;
  • good ventilation;
  • separation distances from other buildings, watercourses or drains;
  • secured doors and windows to prevent unauthorised and inappropriate access;
  • placarding & signage at the entrance;
  • segregation of incompatible chemicals;
  • access to running water, first aid and other facilities required by the SDS.
  • Storage of label ‘booklets’ and SDS

Let’s look at each of these requirements and see what they mean to us:

  • Construction: Consider the following:fridge-storage
    • free-standing
    • within another building
    • and annexe to a building
    • sound, and suitably located, not in the path of potential flooding
    • fire resistant
    • protect contents from sun & rain
    • non-absorbent construction materials, steel shelves etc not wood
    • Bunding – floor/trays/containers within containers etc.
    • Safe size and layout to access and work in, chemicals at safe working height
  • The floor: It must be made of a material that is impervious and resistant to chemical erosion. Perhaps concrete or plastic trays/tubs.
  • Containment: Have the ability to contain a spill of at least the capacity of the largest package, plus 25 per cent of the total volume of the stored products. Note that many QA programs have requirements that are greater than that and even up to 110% of the stored volume.
  • Ventilation: Ventilation of the storage area must prevent the build-up of chemical vapours.
  • daves-storageSeparation:
    • 15m from the property boundary,
    • 10m from buildings occupied by people or livestock,
    • 3m from unrelated work areas, offices and amenities
    • 3m from flammable materials and fuel storage,
    • 5m from any watercourse, body of water, drain or sewer.
  • Secured: Doors and windows should not only be lockable but also they should old-truck-storagebe locked when the store is not being accessed.
  • Signage: At point of entry a sign similar to the one on the old fridge above. Also directions to spill kit, PPE, water and first aid kit are recommended to be posted on outside of storage, along with any pertinent contact details and SDS file location.
  • Segregation: Refer to the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for each of the chemicals being stored – are they potentially incompatible and dangerous if mixed/exposed to other chemicals?
  • Access to running water, first aid and check the SDS to see if there are any other specific storage requirements.
  • Storage of Label Booklets & SDS enables workers to revisit the requirements specified for chemicals – we are all aware of the ‘chinese-whisper’ method of transferring knowledge – it does not work. Here at Smith & Georg we have heard anecdotally of a work place where, overtime, the amount of herbicide being added to a 500Lt tank had become the same as that added to a 15Lt backpack!

Have a look at these photos of some of the storage solutions we’ve come across:some-storage-examples

Ignore Label Instructions and Weather at Your Peril – 7 Million reasons not to!

Ignore Label Instructions and Weather at Your Peril – 7 Million reasons not to!

sunrasyia-daily

High price for spraying: Grower awarded more than $7million

Allan Murphy amurphy@sunraysiadaily.com.au

 

A NORTH west Victorian grape grower, whose 60-hectare property was permanently damaged by chemical overspray from a neighbouring property four years ago, has been awarded more than $7 million.

Riverman Orchards, which farms land at Piangil, claimed herbicide spray drift had adversely impacted on its 61.14-hectare vineyard.

The Supreme Court of Victoria was last week told block owner Tony Caccaviello, who had farmed in the Piangil area for his entire life, initially thought the vines had been affected by frost before tests confirmed the damage was the result of chemicals toxic to grapevines and which were not used within a vineyard.

The court heard vetch block owner Rodney James Hayden confirmed his property had been sprayed just days earlier with a mixture containing 2,4-D, glyphosate and metsulfuron-methyl and which included a wetting agent based on ammonium sulphate.

Riverman sought damages for the October, 2013, overspray event for nuisance and negligence.

It asserted that subjecting its vines to the overspray was an unreasonable and substantial interference with its use and enjoyment of the Mallee Block vineyard.

It also asserted the vetch spraying was negligently carried out, principally in the manner in which it was done in the prevailing weather conditions and in the mixture of chemicals chosen.

At the time of the overspray, local winemaker Andrew Peace Wines was purchasing all of the produce from 54.25 hectares of the Mallee Block at annual prices to be agreed each year before harvest.

Riverman claimed its vineyard did not yield the same quantity of fruit and the quality of the fruit produced was poor and that after three seasons it was clear that the vineyard would not recover.

The plaintiff claimed that 8000 vines needed to be removed and replanted to re-establish the vineyard to the standard that it was before October, 2013.

Hayden’s principal submission was that there was in fact no interference by him through spraying activities with the Riverman property, but if there was a spray drift event, the plaintiff’s damage was not caused by exposure to the herbicides used.

 

He claimed the damage to Mallee Block vines was caused by water stress arising from inadequate irrigation, excessive pruning and general inadequate management, including inappropriate fertilisation.

Hayden submitted that in any event the alleged interference was neither substantial nor unreasonable.

However, Judge John Dixon said he was satisfied that when the defendant sprayed the vetch, multiple spray drifts were created in sufficient concentrations to cause very serious damage to the vines.

Judge Dixon ordered Hayden to pay Riverman $6,543,626.10 in damages and a further $704,587.66 in interest.